Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the body of water. Map of the Black Sea with bathymetry and surrounding relief. The Black Sea sea beauty a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the Aegean Sea. Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara .

The estuary of the Veleka in the Black Sea. Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be considerably older. The Black Sea is one of four seas named in English after common colour terms—the others being the Red Sea, the White Sea and the Yellow Sea. Eúxeinos Póntos, which was also for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the commonly used designation in Greek for the sea. Previously, it was erroneously suggested that the name had to be derived from the color of the water, or at least were to be related to climatic particulars. He also thought that the Black Sea was called «inhospitable» before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.

In Greater Bundahishn, a sacred Zoroastrian text written in Middle Persian the Black Sea is called Siyābun. Edward Gibbon, for instance, calls the sea by this name throughout The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. The Sea of Speri», after the name of Kartvelian tribe Speris or Saspers, now in Turkey. The modern basin is divided into two sub-basins by a convexity extending south from the Crimean Peninsula. The littoral zone of the Black Sea is often referred to as the Pontic littoral or Pontic zone. The area surrounding the Black Sea is commonly referred to as the Black Sea Region.

The Black Sea is a marginal sea and is the world’s largest body of water with a meromictic basin. The Black Sea only experiences water transfer with the Mediterranean Sea, so all inflow and outflow occurs in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles. Inflow from the Mediterranean has a higher salinity and density than the outflow, creating the classical estuarine circulation. This allows for turbulent mixing of the two layers.